Through specialized training, we develop the body's ability to work for a long time in the highest bands of the aerobic regime with the possibility of short-term stress in the anaerobic regime.
In sports walking, walking can be combined with running in some training aids. Running is important not only in the field of aerobic training, but also in the field of strengthening (running up hills, jumping slopes, ABC, special running exercises).
Of course, the training means also include all exercises included in the area of compensatory and regenerative means.
For all training aids used, the competitor must maintain the correct walking technique in the sense of IAAF Rule 230.1 on the definition of racing walking.
- Regeneration trot (RK) - serves, as the name suggests, to eliminate fatigue. We also include it as a part of the training unit in the form of trotting, trotting out and as active filling of breaks between individual sections of training.
- General endurance (OV) - is limited by the performance of the circulatory respiratory system and the level of peripheral oxygen utilization. This means that it is used only in the field of aerobic training of the athlete. Duration is from 50 to 180 minutes. with 60 - 72% of the maximum heart rate according to the competitor's fitness. These are long continuous sections where we run, walk, cross-country ski or ride a bike, in-line skates, etc.
- Pace Endurance (TV) - pace endurance is divided into two levels. We distinguish between temptation endurance 1 (TV1) and temptation endurance 2 (TV2). Tempo endurance 2 follows the preparation of general endurance. It leads to enlargement of the heart, diffuse lung capacity, blood volume and hemoglobin. The load intensity is in the range of 20 - 120 min. in repeated and later even continuous sections of walking in 73 - 78% of the maximum heart rate. Pace endurance 1 is already part of a specific pedestrian training. All functional preconditions for the special pace of the given discipline are realized here. The load time ranges from 5 to 60 minutes. in repeated or continuous sections at the ANP border in 79 - 85% of the maximum heart rate.
- Special tempo (ST) - is actually the same as the walking speed in the race for which the competitor is preparing. Failure to develop all basic walking skills does not allow to reach the highest level of special endurance (therefore, in the case of young people, it is by no means appropriate to emphasize the development of a special pace). We use interval training here, breaks between sections are the same as the time of the completed section for young people, for advanced competitors about 1/2 of the time of the completed section. The load time ranges from 2 to 10 minutes. Exceptionally within 20 min. in repeated sections at the ANP level and in the range of 86 - 92% of the maximum heart rate.
- Pace speed (TR) - it is the walking speed, which corresponds to the speed of the race for a shorter distance than the distance of the race we are preparing for. In the case of a pedestrian preparing for 20km, it is the speed corresponding to a 10km race, but rather 5km. It is about creating the body's ability to work in extreme values of oxygen debt at a high concentration of lactic acid in the peripheral blood. For young people, this ability to work in the anaerobic zone will be developed only after the completion of the basic development of general endurance and maximum speed. We use interval training of speed - strength character with rest intervals of 50% max. 100% of the time of the completed section. The load time is 20 - 120 sec. in repeated sections in the anaerobic regime to 93 - 97% of the maximum heart rate.
- Maximum speed (MR) - is the competitor's ability to develop maximum (absolute) speed on very short sections. The level of maximum speed is affected by several factors, especially the mobility of nervous processes (neuromuscular coordination), explosiveness (speed force), which is applied during a sudden acceleration and change in the frequency of the walking step and free effort. These are repetitive loads, where energy expenditure is covered by the cleavage of ATP - adenosine triphosphate and CP - creatine phosphate in muscle. It is a purely anaerobic regime of loading the organism. Training for the development of maximum speed must be included after rest and in the training unit we start with it right at the beginning. The load time ranges from 10 - 25 sec. in repeated sections with breaks, during which the TF drops to 98% - 100% of the maximum heart rate. Up to 110% of the maximum heart rate can be worked with individuals who are well-endured and physically prepared.
The individual speed bands are strictly individual. The highest development of the body's aerobic abilities occurs at speeds approaching the anaerobic threshold. On the contrary, they hardly develop at rates slower than the effort of less than 65% TF max.
Strong - during muscular walking, most muscle groups are activated and therefore it is necessary to pay due attention to the development of strength, and the development of strength is one of the training means designed for the development of special abilities of pedestrians.
The relationship between muscle work and muscle strength can be divided into:
- muscle work active - overcoming the resistance of variously heavy loads (active dynamic force)
passive muscle work - force used to slow down the movement of heavy loads (passive force)
- muscle work static - force is in balance with the magnitude of resistance (static force)
- muscle work combined - combination of previous methods (combined force)
Depending on the type of athletic activity, some disciplines are characterized by a certain similar way of muscle expression, that is, they are characterized by a certain variant of muscle work and muscle strength. In this context, muscle strength can be distinguished and characterized as follows:
- maximum muscle strength - application in force disciplines (throws and throws) and possibly in sprints and jumps.
- fast muscle strength - Probably the most needed muscle strength used in sports at all.
- endurance muscle strength - is rather understood as the ability to resist fatigue. In disciplines where endurance is associated with cyclical movements with more effort, it has a positive effect on performance.
In sports walking, the development of endurance muscle strength can be clearly used, but at the same time it is correct to include the development of rapid muscular strength in a certain cycle. The nature of this special discipline mainly determines the development of perseverance. At the same time, however, it is necessary to develop rapid muscular strength while maintaining the correct walking technique.
We use the following methods to develop fast muscle strength:
- Speed method - load 30 - 60% of the maximum, repetitive maximum 6 - 12 times, until the speed of the exercise decreases.
- Contrast method - alternating resistance by using higher and lower loads. This results in different exercise speeds, a repetitive maximum of 5 - 10 times and a load of 30 - 80% of the maximum.
- Isokinetic method - exercises on special machines.
We use the following methods to develop endurance muscle strength:
- Repeated effort method - repetitive maximum 10 - 20 exercises, serves to improve nerve coordination. Load 40-60%.
- Force endurance method - repetitive maximum 20 - 50 exercises, load 30 - 40% of maximum.
- Circuit Training - In the current concept, it combines force elements with aerobic ones, the loads are relatively low, so that a larger number of repetitions can be performed. Circular training has not only a strengthening but also a cardiovascular effect. The basic principles are as follows: 8 to 12 stations, 20 - 40 sec at each station, 10 - 15 repetitions. Exercises that can be used: high-knee or skipping, box jump and squat jump, ribbed suspension, shuttle run, low box climb with barbell, rope climbing, push-ups, sprints, starts, frogs, multi-jumps, etc.
General principles of strengthening:
- preference is given to those forms of strength training which most closely resemble walking movement
- in all types of strengthening, it is necessary to master the technique of the exercise first
- Strength training must not adversely affect gait technique, coordination and relaxation
- Compensatory, stretching and relaxation exercises are part of all forms of strengthening
Dexterity and mobility - Dexterity is important in preparing a competitor for sport walking. From the point of view of the movement of a sports pedestrian, it would seem that this movement is simple and one-sided. Dexterity and mobility are needed to master the walking step so that it is efficient and economical, while complying with the rules. Therefore, every pedestrian must master the basic technique of as many athletic disciplines as possible. It helps in the development of movement coordination. Training in sprints, starts from all positions, practice of overcoming obstacles and other techniques not only helps to gain proper dexterity, but we also gain the ability to perform movements in a larger joint range. In athletic gait, this applies in particular to the hip, ankle and shoulder joints. The high level of overall mobility creates the preconditions for mastering walking technique.
(taken from FTVS UK materials)